The protocol for almost all web pages is HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). It is the way data is moved back and forth across the net - you're looking at it right now.
HTTP is open and it can be intercepted so that a hacker can see what you see. Put simply - "Hello" across HTTP is "Hello" pure and simple so how do we prevent "Hello" being read by everyone else?
The introduction of HTTP(S) means that now when you read "Hello" it was actually sent something like "8b1a9953c4611296a827abf8c47804d7".
Why is that so important? Well, now consider "Hello" is your password - hence why the need to put web sites into HTTPS.
When a web site is in HTTPS state it means that it has been given a certificate or key. That key validates the server where the web site is hosted to tell the browser that the site delivery is encrypted meaning that data to and from the browser is encrypted.
Encrypted data is essential these days with the rise in hacking. Normal browsing of a web site doesn't need HTTPS as you are telling the site nothing about you but the moment you enter content into a form or conduct online banking or pay for something that web site MUST be HTTPS else "Hello" really means "Hello" to someone looking in!
Simply browsing a site doesn't require HTTPS but the moment you tell that site something about you that you do not want anyone to know your best advice is to make sure it is HTTPS.
Most browser show a padlock icon on HTTPS secured web sites. Clicking the icon reveals the certificate.
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